Monday, July 30, 2007

Marketing Plan for Wooden Products (Eucalyptus)

Thilina Suranga Jayarathne

Organizations spends vast amount of resources to conduct research and gather marketing intelligence to prepare excellent marketing plans. A sensible method to conduct business would to be having a detailed marketing plan which will identify a range of options to achieve the objectives. A well laid out marketing plan will not only enable the organization to beat its competitors but also would be able to gain competitive edge over the competitors. A marketing plan defined as a logical sequence and a series of activities leading to the settings of objectives and formulation of plans for achieving them.
The benefits of carrying a marketing plan is Identification of potential market, Setting objectives for the growth of the organization, Mitigate threats from competitors, Identify resources of competitive advantage and Identify the forces of the changing environment. All of this we can summarize and say that organizations plan to survive the changing needs of the market place. Most firms today monitor the environmental factors and then figures out the best method to overcome threats and exploit opportunities. Confusion between the marketing strategy and marketing tactics, Isolation of marketing functions from operations, Confusion between the marketing function and the marketing concept, Organizational barriers, Confusion between process and output, Lack of knowledge and skills and Hostile corporate culture are some of the barriers for to implement a good marketing plan.
There are several steps to prepare a good management plan. They are i) Marketing audit (where are we now?), ii) Marketing objectives(where do we want to go?), iii) Marketing strategy(how do we get there?), iv) Marketing activities, forecasting and budgeting(how do we ensure arrival). Here the Nuwara-Eliya plantation company is going to introduce a new wooden tile in to the market branded as “LEEtaa”. There objective is to convert the whole final harvest in to a wooden tile. As they have 1290 ha of Eucalyptus, the timber supply will not be a problem. The company is going to recover the capital cost within four rotations (80 years) and to have a 10% profit from the production cost. The marketing plan has calculated all the expected cost and the price of a tile will be Rs. 210.45. It will be a competitive price in the market. But some figures I have been used are completely hypothetical. So we have to do a proper market survey and obtained the actual figures before implementing it.

Friday, July 27, 2007



Poverty can be defined as the state of non fulfillment of minimum requirements of food, shelter, clothing which are the components of basic needs of the people. It refers to forms of economic, social and psychological deprivation occurring among people lacking sufficient ownership, control or access to resources fro minimum required level of living. Hence the World Bank proposes to attack poverty in three distinct ways: promoting opportunities, facilitating empowerment, and enhancing security. (World Bank 2001). Social forestry addresses this concept of poverty in all these three different ways.

Social forestry refers to carrying out a number of specific forest management objectives with the local participation and aiming at fulfillment of local needs for forest products and services. Forests reduce poverty in two ways, by providing tangible benefits as well as by providing intangible benefits. Tangible benefits refer to the food, shelter, cloths, construction materials and mulch. Besides meeting their basic needs, they provide gainful employment and income through selling of minor products to external market. Intangible benefits consist of Carbon sequestration, Replacement of fossil fuels, Water conservation, Soil conservation as well as Aesthetic and ecotourism. These services provide additional financial benefits to the involving communities.

When considering this issue on Sri Lankan perspective National Forest Policy and forestry Sector Master Plan have promoted the concept of social forestry with the active participation of forest fringe communities. Several social forestry programmes have been taken place in Sri Lankan history from 1982 up to now. Forest resource management project and Sri Lanka - Australia natural resource management project are more significant here. By establishing farmer’s woodlots, reforestation of degraded lands, increased ecotourism and promotion of marketing opportunities have brought additional income along with increasing the living standards of the community.

Recent policy shifts and multilateral forestry development projects have attempted to reintegrate communities with the public sector, however it is apparent that fundamental transfers of authority to local groups have not yet taken place nor the legal steps been made to allow this to happen. Because state has generally left rural committees out of forestry sector decision making. To avoid this circumstance, the forest fringe communities must integrate to decision making processes as well as it is necessary to formulate a policy that is based on the grass root level needs and is implementable.No country can improve its quality of life and standard of living unless its human resources are wedded to natural resources. Hence, if the concepts of social forestry are taken place effectively, it truly can contribute to total poverty reduction in near future

Tuesday, July 24, 2007



PVC (polyvinyl chloride) - often referred to simply as 'vinyl' - is one of the most versatile of the plastic materials which now pervade modern society. It is also the most dangerous. PVC is used in a broad range of applications, so startlingly diverse that it becomes difficult to speak of it as being single material. It is used in packaging, consumer articles, in construction, office items as well as hospital products.
The chlorine produced by the chlor-alkali process is very reactive than those which produced by other caustic soda production. Because it is highly reactive so, it tends to react with organic materials and forms highly toxic organochlorines. Not only in the production, through out its whole life cycle it creates environmental problems. Especially the additives and plasticizers which are using to give a soft and pliable structure to PVC are highly toxic in nature. Many pollution control measures as dry process, wet process. Semi-wet processes etc. are used all around the world. Which the wet process is more common in most Asian countries. With the technological development the toxic by products which are formed through the PVC manufacturing process have been halted by better management practices. Many European countries have restricted the use of some PVC products due to the danger of PVC industry.
According to the Sri Lanka National Environmental Act (NEA) No.47 of 1980, section 23A and which had then been amended by Acts no. 56 of 1988 and 53 of 2000, industries involved in the manufacture of polymers or polymer based products including PVC, an Environmental Protection Licence (EPL) has to be taken from the CEA for those industries where toxic chemicals are formulated in a capacity less than 50 tons per day or industries where toxic chemicals are manufactured in a capacity less than 25 tons per day, otherwise an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) must be done for its functioning.
Most of Sri Lankan PVC industries are using PVC resin as the raw material. Hence the production of most toxic by products through PVC manufacturing process has been halted in the country. But a considerable pollution takes place when PVC powder is transported to the industrial premises. Waste water is not generated in industries those who use PVC resins and machine cooling water is completely recycled and is reused. Solid wastes and rejected items are crushed and recycled. Recycled PVC is used to produce hose pipes. Solid waste re not burnt at any instance and the domestic effluent is directed to a properly designed soakage pit. The prescribed noise levels had been able to achieve through installation of modernized machines by some PVC industries.
Only very minute fraction of post consumer PVC products can be recycled. Hence most of the countries are implementing PVC phasing out programmes with the association of private sectors and public community. The most appropriate measure to be taken is to use environmentally friendly substitutes for PVC which in tern help to phase out PVC products. the PVC industry, The market saturation has been achieved in Western Europe and North America, is now planning to expand PVC products to the new and less industrialized countries. It is now paramount that this toxic industry should not expand and PVC bans and phase-outs must therefore become an urgent priority for the betterment of future.


The aim of forest certification is to prove the buyer of timber products that the timber used for them is derived from a well managed forest. This is proved by the certification of the forest management on the one hand and the chain of custody of timber on the other hand and is made visible by the appropriate label on the product or its package. The purpose of this is to prove that the forest management has a sustainable basis in line with the decisions of the UN’s environmental summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. According to this, sustainable development or forest management includes ecological, social and economical sustainability.
International systems as well as national systems can be adopted to certify forests those are in conformity with the internationally accepted standards and criteria. Mainly Forest Stewardship Council
(FSC) certification and Pan European Forest Certification (PEFC) act as mostly recognized international systems while there are some countries who have adopted their own systems in a way that their standards and criteria are fulfilling their requirements. Malaysia is one of them, where their national forest certification system works more effectively.
77,542 ha out of 19,292,000 ha of total forests have been certified in Malaysia under FSC. It is around 0.4% of total forested area. After the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) in 1997, the needness of adopting their own certification system took an importance when the condition came that "all timber producer countries have to have their exports of tropical timber and tropical timber products come from sustainably managed sources by the year 2000".
As a result of this, Malaysian Timber Certification Council (MTCC) was established to formulate Malaysian indicators and criteria (MC&I) and started its operation in October 2001 which will issue forest certification for those who are meeting the seven criteria and fifty three indicators that have adopted by them. Certificates for forest management as well as certificate for chain of custody are issued by the MTCC. When consider about the percentage of areas certified under FSC and MTCC, in Malaysia 11% and 89% of area have been certified under two systems respectively.
First shipment of MTCC certified timber has been carried away in July 2002. According to reports, the exports of MTCC certified timber has been increased with the time. Although the forest certification in Malaysia is successfully implementing due to the adaptation of own forest certification scheme and the independent monitoring and engagement of government, the future demand on MTCC certified timber is under uncertainty, as a result of the slow rate of acceptance in the world market due to locally adopted nature.
If the countries looking forward to buy the certified timber from other countries accept and support MTCC certified timber in near future, the uncertainty in demand can be minimized and so then the future for MTCC certified timber will be more favorable to Malaysia.


The unsustainable use and the trading of wildlife has been a major problem around the globe. As a result of this wildlife trading, most of the wild fauna and flora has become extinct in the world. After understanding the importance of this issue, few countries in the world have got together and brought up a convention called "Convention in International Trade of endangered species of wild fauna and flora"(CITES) on the 3rd of March in 1973 which is now developed as one of the largest conservation agreements in the world with 169 parties.
Depending of the degree of threat by international trade, they are being divided into three different appendices in CITES. Based on these appendices, the need nesses of import and export permits for wildlife transportation are varying. The permits for wildlife imports and exports will be issued only if they possess several requirements given under each appendix. Each country has a separate CITES list for fauna as well as flora. Such permit is not needed for those which are not included in the respective CITES list. Although the CITES has given a huge safeguard for variety of species, it holds several drawbacks. Most significant one is that this possesses a reservation system. Hence if a certain register an objection to the listing of a particular species, that country then becomes effectively a non party regarding that species. Also the absence of a requirement for an import permit for Appendix II is considered to be an unfortunate feature of CITES. But some countries have taken stricter measures in their national laws rather than CITES.
When considering this issue from the Sri Lankan scenario, the operation of Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance (FFPO) has become more effective than operation of CITES. Section 37, 40 and 42 has addressed the imports and exports of fauna and flora in the new amendment of Act No. 47 of 1993. Under that, all mammals, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, fish, birds as well as plants and trees have also been prohibited from trading. They are being classified as schedules starting from I to VI. Both negative listing and positive listing are found there. The protected species under FFPO are not imported or exported except in the situations as promotion of scientific knowledge. Import permit or an export permit is needed for the imports or exports of other species which are not protected in Sri Lanka. In such cases also, commercial trade is not allowed and artificial propagation within nurseries or farms are allowed under proper supervision. When compared to the CITES, the drawbacks of FFPO are negligible.
Although this much of protection is given under CITES and FFPO in Sri Lanka, huge number of wildlife trading takes place illegally. This can be as a result of low monitoring and low enforcement of existing laws. Hence a proper awareness of existing laws must be given to public and a separate body must be appointed to monitor the implementation and the operation of laws.
Hence, if the existing laws are taken place strictly and the awareness of these laws is enhanced, it is possible to totally ban the illegal wildlife trading in near future.



Sri Lanka is considered as the highest biodiverse country per unit area in Asia. The protected areas (PA’s) in Sri Lanka include some of the most species rich and endemic rich eco systems. Hence the threat to these PA’s and its wild life is much more increased due to reasons as encroachment and poaching of wild life, higher grazing of livestock, illegal gem mining, collection of non wood forest products ect. Due to these reasons a proper management of these PA’s should be enhanced. Hence this project is implemented in Sri Lanka to protect our PA’s and their wild life along with improving the living standards of community living in the buffer zones and stimulating eco-tourism industry in Sri Lanka.
This project consisting of four components as Enhancing Institutional Capacity for protected Area Management, Participatory Adaptive Management of selected Protected Areas, Collaborative Conservation Planning, Sustainable Financing for Community Partnership Building. With the consideration of biodiversity and the ecological value and to represent the different climatic zones seven PA’s were selected as pilot areas to implement this project. They are Wasgomuwa, Bundala, Peak wilderness, Minneriya, Horton Plains, Ritigala and Udawalawa. The project is funded by the Asian development bank, Global environmental facility, Government of Netherlands, Government of Sri Lanka and it is implemented in 17th October 2001. Although it has been scheduled to complete in December 2006 due to different reasons, the project is given an extension time period to be completed in end of 2008.
The first component of the project is mainly focused on enhancing the capacity of Department of Wild Life conservation for the proper PA management and component B is focused on developing infra structure facilities for both the animals as well as eco-tourists. Completing the Bio Diversity Action Plan and continuous updating of the red list is considered in the component C while component D is mainly targeted on establishing a fund to carry on the community based activities.
When considering about the progress of activities up to first quarter of 2006, the establishment of boundary demarcations, live fencing and fire line establishment are in progress. Completions of park buildings in many PA’s have been completed while others are in progress.
Scarcities of construction materials, unskilled labors, poor cash flow and suspension of construction of DWLC head office have been adversely affected for the improper implementation of the project.
At the end of the project, it will provide a protected area network in Sri Lanka while conserving its wild life resources. Not only the DWLC can protect and observe these PA’s, if all relevant stakeholders as well as the community involved for implementing this protection and conservation aspect, this can be implemented to all the PA’s in Sri Lanka.



Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) can be defined as a continuous and dynamic process by which decisions are taken for the sustainable use, development and protection of the coastal and marine areas and resources. ICAM acknowledges the interrelationships that exist among coastal and ocean uses and the environments they potentially affect, and is designed to overcome the fragmentation inherent in the sectoral management approach. ICAM is multi-purpose oriented. It analyzes and addresses implications of development, conflicting uses, and interrelationships between physical processes and human activities, and it promotes linkages and harmonization among sectoral coastal and ocean activities.
Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) a suitable strategy for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastline. It provides strategies for the present and future coastal resource use, protects valuable natural and socio-cultural resources,Resolving conflicts over resource use, protecting public safety and stimulating sustainable economical development and investment. The modern aspect is the integration of forestry, fisheries and agricultural sectors in order to stimulate sustainable economic development.
In Sri Lanka, the main objectives of ICAM programmes are to reduce physical damages occurred by tsunami, increasing livelihood and reducing the vulnerability of resilient. But the weaknesses of governing bodies, less involvement of public community, less investment and less involvement of private sectors and donors are the major drawbacks of the effective implementation of these ICAM programmes.
By the effective implementation of rules and regulations for the development activities within the coastal zone, encouraging residents to participate in the decision making and implementation of coastal zone management programmes, proper guidance by the government agencies and the better involvement of private sectors can be recommended as short term and long term recommendations.
For rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastline, ICAM is suitable, but may not be enough. Rehabilitation and reconstruction in these areas requires a lot of investment at different levels from different sources, from national to local budgets, but in particular the private sector and donors. Therefore by the definition of ICAM, only natural and social scientists, coastal managers and policy makers are not enough. Coastal Zone Management with all its components could be a suitable approach concerning implementation of sustainable rehabilitation and reconstruction measures. To achieve this, there is now a chance to coordinate various programmes and combine efforts and funds. However, it may be important to keep the concept of ICAM throughout the process, from planning to implementing and management phases.

Monday, July 23, 2007

Preparation of a Management Plan for Small Scale Teak Plantations

K M T S Jayarathne and S M C U P Subasinghe
Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

Teak (Tectona gradis) is one of the most valuable timber species in the tropics. It is introduced to Sri Lanka in 1680 by Dutch. At present 45,336.9 ha of teak plantations are maintained by the Sri Lanka Forest Department as homogeneous plantations in dry and intermediate zones. Other than that teak is grown as mixtures with Jak, Margosa, Eucalyptus and Mahogany. The popular methods of establishing teak plantations were Taungya System and PFPs (Participatory Forestry Projects). Teak is maintained as State owned lands, Private lands or Farmers woodlots.

Teak Plantations in Sri Lanka are maintained for productive purposes. Therefore the costs and benefits must be considered economically and ecologically before drawing up proper management plans, especially for the small scale plantations. The yield from properly managed plantations is obtained not only from the final felling but also from silvicultural operations which are applied at regular intervals. In order to manipulate those activities and to maximize the income with minimum environmental impacts comprehensive management plans are required.

With the above considerations, the present study was designed to achieve the following objectives; (i) to identify the maximum extent of a small scale plantation; (ii) to prepare a comprehensive working plan for a selected plantation; (iii) to identify the environmental damages and possible conservation methods in small scale teak plantation management and (iv) to prepare cost and income values at intermediate and final harvestings.

The selected land (12.5 ha) for the present study was initially owned by Rambapokuna Temple in Rambapokuna village in Kurunegala district (309 Kandegedara GN division, Nikaweratiya DS division). It was acquired by the Forest Department in 1999 and given 0.4 ha to each farmer under 25 years lease agreement. The particular block which was used for the data collection was owned by Mrs. W.A. Karunawathi (policy no RP/FW/30/99).

As the plantation is homogeneous the Transect Sampling Technique was applied to collect the necessary data. A transect was demarcated along the diagonal of the land and 0.02 circular plots were demarcated with 5 m intervals. Total height and dbh of the trees were measured from total 04 plots (42 stems) to calculate the basal area and volume.

When the result were analyzed, it was identified that the distribution of dbh is approximately normal. The average tree dbh, height and volume are 11.22 cm, 8.80 m and 0.051 m3 respectively. Pre-commercial thinning has already been done in 2007 without a scientific study. When compared with Provisional Yield Tables published by Forest Department, this site belongs to “height class III”.

The currant volume of the plantation was projected to the future using the appropriate yield table to calculate the income and cost by time series analysis. It is estimated that 48.895m3 of total timber volume which can produce the income of Rs. 3,094,799.00 (assuming 75% timber recovery in harvesting) during the thinnings and final felling which are to be done in 2014, 2024, 2034 and 2049. The total cost of extraction and replanting was estimated as Rs 636,021.08 for the particular teak block. It is calculated that the Net Present Value (NPV) of the total income and total cost will be Rs 162,528.60 assuming the present discount rate of Sri Lanka is 10%.

The above calculations were based only on use values of the plantation. However it is recommended to consider the non-use values such as soil protection, CO2 absorption, O2 emission, climate regulation etc, using an appropriate method. The currant management plan was prepared only for 0.4 ha because of the time and capital constrains. It is strongly recommended to extrapolate this study to different site types covering a vast area of the country in order to obtain the most accurate results so that a precise management plan can be drawn. Otherwise the management guidelines will be less effective.

Tuesday, July 03, 2007


Mahesha Karunathilake

The use of chemical fertilizers, high yielding varieties and agricultural practices have resulted in tremendous develop in the agricultural sector. There is no doubt that use of chemical fertilizers has increased food grain production, but the excessive use is now leading to a decrease in crop yield, imbalance of nutrients in the soil, and an adverse effect on the soil's physiochemical properties. Also the use of chemical fertilizer leads to ecological disturbances and environmental pollution.

However, chemical fertilizers are not only short supply but also very expensive. At this critical stage biofertilizers are an excellent alternative for chemical fertilizers. They are low cost, renewable, and pollution free. Biofertilizers are useful as a supplement for chemical fertilizers.

Basically, biofertilizers are carrier based preparations containing specific strains of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, algae or their combinations. Biofertilizers are categorized in to two main groups.

1. Biological N2 fixing biofertilizers
-Consist of microorganisms which have ability to fix N2 either symbiotically or a symbiotically.
2. PO43- Solubilizing biofertilizers
- Consist of microorganisms which have ability to solubilize fixed insoluble phosphates of the soil.

The use of biofertilizers has following advantages. They are cheap and can help to reduce chemical fertilizer consumption. They provide biological nitrogen directly to the plants. They help in solubilization and mineralization of other plant nutrients like phosphates. They enhance plant growth due to release of hormones, vitamins, auxins and other growth promoting substances. They control and suppress soil borne diseases .They increase crop yield by 10% -20 %. They improve soil properties and maintain soil fertility.

The production of biofertilizers is totally based on efficient strain of microorganisms. To select the efficient strains, different procedures are used. These procedures have three main steps called as isolation, identification and maintenance of the strain.

Microorganisms are isolated from the places which they are naturally live. Then it’s necessary to identify the microbial strains with good qualities. Since isolation and identification of any strain tedious and time consuming job it’s important to maintain the strains without loosing their characters.

The production technology of biofertilizers must be done under aseptic conditions and using sterilized media and equipments.

There are some disadvantages of biofertilizers such as contaminations and mutations during the production process. Also the presence of overpowering antagonistic microorganisms in the soil suppresses the establishment of the biofertilizers. Also the application of pesticides limits the nitrogen fixation capacity of them.

At present the biofertilizer industry is in its developing phase. Still farmers do not want to take the risk of reducing the application dose of chemical fertilizers. So there is a need to promote the biofertilizers among farmers as pollution free, productive and economically sound product.

Norochcholai coal power plant

Sahan Pradsad Jayasinghe

Sri Lanka is facing a big electricity crisis during last several years. Hydro power fulfills 37% of the electricity demand and balance 67% is fulfilled by fuel. Electricity has supplied for 60% of the houses in the country and 40% of the house holders electricity demand still exists. Yet, the electricity demand increases 10% annually.

Due to increment of the oil price of the world market Sri Lanka has been facing financial constraints. Due to all the possible hydro power sources have been utilized and using oil to produce thermal power is not cost effective, Sri Lanka should make steps towards cheep and high power generating method. Coal is the only alternative for this because wind mills and fire wood like modes give lesser amount of energy comparing with coal.

The construction of coal power plant is commenced on 11th May 2006 with the purpose of fulfilling the increasing electricity demand of the country and providing electricity at cheaper cost. Project site is located at the Narakkalliya village in the Kalpitiya peninsula, about 12km from the Palavi junction.

It will be constructed in three stages, with a capacity of 300MW per plant per year, making a total capacity of 900MW by 2010.Project is funded by EXIM bank of china and total project cost is $455 million. Power plant only burns high quality low sulphur containing coal and they will be imported from South Africa, Australia and Indonesia.

Before the commencement of the project there were several susceptible socio-economic and environmental problems. According to the EIA assessment there will not be any harm for the environment and proper relocating families process before the beginning of the construction will solve socio economic problems. Some of the major environmental issues would be happen due to emissions like CO2, CO, SO2 and NOX, particles like fly ash, bottom ash and coal dust and cooling water discharge. Losing peoples’ houses and their agricultural lands would be the major socio-economic issues. All these issues will be solved or minimized.

Solutions for power crisis in Sri Lanka

Shanika Lakmali

Population of Sri Lanka in 2004 was around 19.46 million, with population growth rate of 1.1% as compared to 1.3% in 2003 (Central Bank, 2005, 2004).So the population has grown up very rapidly. Energy consumption also increased with population growth rate & development. In the Past years most of the energy requirements were provided by hydro power generations. The use of petroleum in power generation has been rapidly increasing due to the increased use of thermal power, in the absence of alternative energy sources and the non-implementation of planned coal power and hydropower projects. Fossil fuels have to import from other countries. They are limited in supply. That’s why it’s better to go for other alternative energy sources. Such as biomass energy, solar power, wave power, nuclear power, wind power & bio gas.

First solution is construct mini hydro power plants related to the canals & small water falls. They can generate electricity for the isolated villages called off grid electricity & to the main grid electricity. Second one is thermal electricity generation by fossil fuels. The main environmental effect is the emission of green house gasses to the atmosphere. Biomass energy is most important renewable energy source. There is huge potential to develop dendro power plants in the country. Create employment opportunities, save foreign currency, improve rural development are the benefits of biomass energy. Wind power is the other energy source. We tend to build many of these towers together, to make a "wind farm" and produce more electricity. The more towers, the more wind, and the larger the propellers, the more electricity we can make. It’s only worth building wind farms in places that have strong, steady winds, although boats and caravans increasingly have small wind generators to help keep their batteries charged. Energy obtained by nuclear fission & nuclear fusion reactions. But most commonly used nuclear fission reactions. Wave & tidal power are energy sources from the sea.

In Sri Lanka large amount of power generation from thermal power. Mini hydro-power projects very suitable for our country. Also there is a huge potential to develop dendro power plantations in rural areas. Solar home systems good solution for the power generation in dry zone. Since the political instability Nuclear power not suitable as a alternative energy source. Tidal wave plantation have to have more capital investment. it’s a problem. So construction suitable, when under donations of developed countries.

Government should actively participate in promoting alternative energy sources. Private sector should be encouraged to make small renewable electricity plantations. Promote the use of high value public services. (solar powered refrigeration, solar PV or micro-hydro for telecommunication).Establish fuel plantations in coconut estates like crop areas can earn additional income Promote Agro based industries to run their own produced biomass energy. Use plant and animal wastes to produce fuels such as methanol, natural gas, and oil. Biomass energy systems can related to the reduction of agricultural waste disposal problem. Power crisis can be alleviate to some extends by establishing renewable energy plantations in the country.